Human immunodeficiency virus HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system.
One person can transmit HIV to another under certain circumstances. Understanding the facts about HIV transmission can prevent both the spread of misinformation and the transmission of HIV. HIV may be transmitted through certain bodily fluids that are capable of containing high concentrations of the virus.
These fluids include:. Amniotic and spinal cord fluids can also contain HIV and could pose a risk to healthcare personnel who are exposed to them.
Can hiv be transmitted through blood transfusions?
Other bodily fluids, such as tears, saliva, and sweat, do not transmit the virus. HIV is transmitted when a person who has measurable amounts of the virus in their body pass fluids directly into the bloodstream or through mucous membranes, cuts, or open sores of a person without HIV.
HIV exposure can occur during sexual intercourse. Both anal sex and vaginal sex have risks of HIV transmission. Receptive anal sex has the highest risk of transmission among sexual activity. There may be a of reasons, including that Aids through blood is more likely during anal sex due to the fragile tissues that line the anus and anal canal. While vaginal sex possibly carries less risk of transmission than anal sex, either partner can contract HIV in this way.
Sharing needles for injecting drugs most efficiently transmits HIV. This is because used needles and syringes can still contain bloodwhich can carry the virus. An older study found that HIV can survive up to 42 days in syringes, depending on the temperature.
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The viruses that cause hepatitis B and hepatitis C can be transmitted in this way as well. There are also some less common ways that HIV can be transmitted. Generally speaking, female-to-male or more accurately, someone with a vagina transmitting the virus to someone with a penis transmission is less likely than male-to-female transmission. Some factors can increase the risk of someone with a penis contracting HIV via vaginal sex.
For example, open cuts, sores, or ulcers around the penis can provide a way for the virus to enter the body. This type of Aids through blood can potentially occur due to exposure to vaginal fluids or menstrual blood. There have been reported cases of HIV transmission via oral sex.
Given current research reports, the risk of HIV transmission from oral sex is believed to be very low, but not zero. The risk of contracting HIV from a blood transfusion, other blood products, or organ donation is now extremely rare in the United States.
Comprehensive, up-to-date information on hiv/aids treatment and prevention from the university of california san francisco
All donated blood or blood products in the United States are tested for several types of bloodborne pathogens, including HIV. The risk of HIV transmission during Aids through blood blood transfusion is conservatively estimated to be 1 in 1. Organ donations are also screened for HIV. However, testing of organ recipients postsurgery can quickly detect transmission so that antiretroviral medications can be started promptly.
HIV can also be transmitted from a pregnant person to their child during pregnancy, delivery, and through breastfeeding. However, testing of all pregnant people for HIV has greatly decreased the of babies that contract HIV in this way. Additionally, if both the birthing parent and child receive HIV medications during pregnancy and breastfeeding, the risk of transmission can almost be eliminated, according to the World Health Organization WHO.
This can happen when both partners have bleeding gums or open cuts or sores in their mouths.
How can you get hiv?
Healthcare personnel are most at risk for this type of transmission, but the likelihood is very low. A bite that opens the skin and causes bleeding can lead to the transmission of HIV. However, according to the CDCthere have been very few cases of a human bite causing enough trauma to the skin to transmit HIV.
Having a detectable or measurable viral load can be a risk factor of HIV transmission. Viral load is the amount of virus that can be detected in the blood. The rate of HIV transmission goes up Aids through blood increasing viral load. Viral load is highest both during the early acute phase of HIV and without treatment with antiretroviral medications. It can take up to 6 months of taking antiretroviral medications each day to achieve an undetectable viral load. This is because the virus is killed in their digestive tracts.
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There are several population- behavior- and health-related factors that may put a person at increased risk for HIV. These include:. Additionally, there are several groups that the CDC has identified as currently making up a larger of new HIV cases in the United States based on their population s.
This can mean a bigger risk factor within these groups. First, the symptoms of many STIs cause genital inflammation, sores, or ulcers to occur. These can all facilitate the transmission of the virus from one person to another. Second, like HIV, transmission of STIs is associated with some of the same types of behaviors, such as engaging in sex without a condom or other barrier method. These STIs include:.
Keep open lines of communication with sexual partners, such as discussing the risks associated with sex without a barrier method and sharing STI status. HIV is most commonly transmitted through anal and vaginal sex and the sharing of injection drug equipment.
Examples of less common routes of transmission include oral sex and transmission during pregnancy. There are several ways to prevent HIV transmission. For example, people living with HIV can take antiretroviral medications daily to reduce viral load to undetectable levels. This practically eliminates any risk of transmitting HIV during sex.
When having sex, always use a condom or other barrier method. People who inject drugs can use safe injection sites and needle exchange programs.
Read this article in Spanish. Learn how monitoring viral load helps determine how well HIV treatment is working.
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