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The authors do not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and have disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. Asian American women understand that the alleged murderer of eight people in Atlanta was acting in keeping with a culture filled with racialized and sexualized views of Asian women. Of the people murdered, four women were of Korean Asian rape black and two of Chinese heritage.
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The history of rape in the United States is a history of racism and sexism intertwined. During slavery, both white and black men raped black women with impunity. After the Civil War and during Reconstruction, white mobs lynched numerous black men based on trumped up charges of sexual assault of white women, and the specter of lynching terrorized the black community.
Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Minority-general and minority-specific models are proposed to guide the analysis. The findings are mixed. The analyses of all victim-related and most offender-related variables show similarities of hate crimes against Asian Americans to those against African Americans and Hispanics. These findings provide support for the minority-general model.
These ificant differences provide support for the minority-specific model. Asian immigration to the United States increased ificantly since the enactment of the Immigration and Naturalization Act in Grieco et al. Statistics from the Census Bureau show that the Asian population increased from 3. As the Asian Asian rape black increased, crimes against Asian Americans also rose over the years. These s increased to Asian rape black. Hate crimes against Asian Americans have also increased over the years. Although there was a temporary decrease from toanti-Asian bias crimes had increased again from to To date, empirical research that focuses on hate crimes against Asian Americans is rare.
The nature and characteristics of victims, offenses, offenders, and situational conditions of hate crimes against Asian Americans largely remain unknown. The purpose of this study is to explore the nature and characteristics of hate crimes committed against Asian Americans by comparing them with hate crimes committed against African Americans and Hispanics.
To guide the analysis, two theoretical models are proposed — minority-general and minority-specific models. Guided by these models, the analysis compares three aspects of hate crimes against Asians with hate crimes against African Americans and Hispanics, which include victim, offender, and incident-related variables. Asian Americans have not been exempt from this hatred. The early s, for example, saw the Arsonists of the Order of Caucasians—a white supremacist group—murdered four Chinese men over White layoffs.
Their federally-confiscated property as well as reparations were not returned until Japanese American Citizens League, n. Although the Civil Rights Movement in the s and s was a turning point for Asian Americans, the ificant increase of Asian rape black brought about by both the enactment of the Immigration and Naturalization Act of Grieco et al.
The success of Japanese automobile manufacturers in the U. The historical examples of hate crimes against Asian Americans are highlighted to suggest these occurrences are not a new crime phenomenon. Rather, they are part of a larger, traditional Asian rape black sentiment. This pandemic-related stigmatization and the surge of hate crime incidents against Asian Americans demonstrate an important social issue that is historically recurring and deserves research attention.
Hate crimes against Asian Americans has gone largely ignored by researchers.
While multiple reasons may for the lack of research on hate crimes against Asian Americans, a major factor is that there lacks statistics of anti-Asian crimes. Asian rape black, the low frequencies of hate crimes against Asian Americans may also be the result of lack of reporting that does not capture crime incidents. The language barriers faced by many Asian immigrants prevent them from communicating efficiently about criminal victimization to the police. The current study aims to fill in the research gap by examining the nature and characteristics of hate crimes against Asian Americans.
It compares the nature and characteristics with those of hate crimes against African Americans and Hispanics. We propose minority-general and minority-specific models to guide the comparison.
The minority-general model assumes that the characteristics of hate crimes against Asian Americans are not likely to differ from those of hate crimes against African Americans and Hispanics ificantly. studies suggest that the nature of hate crime incidents is rather arbitrary or accidental Green et al. Racial biases may be acted out when a motivated offender has a situational opportunity with a suitable target of racial minority. Such acts may be spontaneous and may not clearly distinguish between the target minority groups. The defended community perspective seems to be consistent with the minority-general model.
A defended community is likely to develop when community residents feel threatened for Asian rape black valued community identities and take actions against that threat.
Although the studies did not aim to compare hate crimes against different minorities, 7 some studies indicate that the correlates of hate crime against different minorities are similar. For example, Green et al.
Hate crimes against asian americans
They found that hate crimes against Asians, Latinos, and Blacks are most frequent in predominantly White areas with increased in-migration of minorities. Using bias crime report data of the Sacramento Police Department from toGrattet examined whether the correlates such as racial composition, concentrated disadvantage, and residential turnover of overall bias crimes had similar effects on anti-black bias offenses. Assuming that many of the neighborhood dynamics associated with Asian rape black crimes would operate regardless of the characteristics of the specific target groups, his findings suggest that there are some minor differences of the correlates between overall bias crimes and anti-black bias offenses.
Gladfelter et al. In contrast, the minority-specific model assumes that the characteristics of hate crimes against Asian Americans are likely to differ from those against African Americans and Hispanics because of the unique minority status of Asian Americans.
Violence against asian american women
Compared to African Americans and Hispanics, Asian Americans have distinct characteristics due to their physical features, cultural traditions, and personal and collective achievements in the United States.
InU. The same data indicate that in Some groups have access to better material recourses than others. During economic downturns, racial conflict and hate crimes may occur when a racial group perceives that their access and privileges to material resources are threatened by other racial groups. Although there are rare studies comparing hate crime against Asian Americans with other minority groups, a few of Asian rape black indicated some differences in hate crimes across different minority groups.
This relationship, however, was mediated by the presence of a larger minority group and greater minority political power.
Asian rape black with more Blacks relative to Whites, and with more African-American political power, reported fewer anti-Black hate crimes. Similarly, states with a larger Hispanic population relative to Whites reported fewer anti-Hispanic hate crimes. These findings imply that the correlates of hate Asian rape black against minorities may be sensitive to the characteristics of target minorities.
Because of the historical racism, social and economic inequality, and cultural differences, different racial minorities such as African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans have different statuses in the United States. Guided by the theoretical models, the present study compares three aspects—victim, offender, and incident related variables, respectively—of hate crime against Asian Americans with those against African Americans and Hispanics.
The specific research questions examined in the study are:. Do Asian Americans as victims of hate crimes have any unique characteristics compared to those of African American and Hispanic victims? Do the incidents of hate crimes against Asian Americans show any ificant differences from those of hate crimes against African Americans and Hispanics? NIBRS is an incident-based comprehensive data collection system, which collects data on each single incident and the arrest of 48 Group A offenses. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Agencies that report through the NIBRS system provide substantially more information on hate crimes than that is captured in the other two methods.
For example, while information such as the age, sex, race, and ethnicity of offenders, victims, and arrestees is available in the NIBRS system, it is Asian rape black reported by agencies either through the hate crime record layout or through the Excel Workbook Tool. In case that an incident had multiple offenders, victims, or offenses, the information of the first offender, victim or offense was used in the dataset. Overall, a total of law enforcement agencies reported 28, racially motivated hate crimes through NIBRS between and We used the subset data of the anti-Asian American, anti-African American, and anti-Hispanic incidents for our analysis.
Furthermore, considering the purpose of the current study, we limited the victim type to individual victims, and offense type to violent crimes.
These historical data made available sufficient cases to be analyzed and covered more jurisdictions. Among Asian rape black were anti-Asian, anti-African American, and anti-Hispanic hate crimes. Because of the challenge and difficulty to collect and record information on reported hate crimes, substantial missing values existed among variables in the dataset. Our data screening showed that missing values were mainly from offender-related variables. For example, there were When encountering missing values in statistical analysis, missing data imputation might be utilized.
To examine the pattern of missing values, we created a binary indicator variable. When any of the offender-related, or victim-related variables had missing values, it was coded as one, otherwise, it was coded as zero. Information on the incident related variables of residential status, offender-victim-relationship, weapon use, and injury may be difficult for victims to determine and recall due to the emergent nature of hate crimes.
In addition, because of the historical reasons, Asian Americans may settle in different types Asian rape black places compared to other minority groups. As a result, they might be subject to different pool of potential offenders or social, political, or economic circumstances, which in turn might intersect with factors engendering hate crimes.
A long history of stereotypes
To control for the contextual effects, counties where the incident occurred were identified based on police agencies reporting the crimes. Census Asian rape black at county level were utilized to obtain measures of population sizes of different racial groups and economic variables. Since cases originally handled by State Police cannot be ased to specific counties, they were excluded from the analysis.
Finally, we notice that the dataset contains intra-racial incidents when examining victim and offender races. Since the current study focuses on racially motivated hate crimes, we delete the intra-racial incidents from the analysis.
Where we stand
The final sample size for the current analysis is thereforeincluding anti-Asian, anti-Black, and anti-Hispanic hate crime incidents located in counties. The first dependent variable is used to compare hate crimes against Asian Americans and African Americans, which was coded as zero if the crime is against African Americans and as one if, the crime is against Asian Americans. Three groups of independent variables, including victim- offender- Asian rape black incident-related variables were in the analysis.