Heroin is part of a group of drugs known as opioids. Opioids interact with opioid receptors in the brain and elicit a range of responses within the body; from feelings of pain relief, to relaxation, pleasure and contentment.
Chinese factories are mass producing novel psychoactive substances that mimic banned substances, destined for an eager market in the US and UK. A t midnight on a recent Friday, in a backroom at Chemsun Global pharmaceutical laboratory in Shanghai, a Chinese chemist who called himself Terry was eager to close a deal.
Outside in the lab a bright yellow liquid whirred around a flask. The smell of fumes was so intense it left a bitter, chemical aftertaste. The place was filthy: surfaces were strewn with discarded rubber gloves and in one corner a sack of white powder spilled onto the floor. Tell me what you want, how much you want, then we can talk about price, we can talk about shipment. In the last decade, the global trade in drugs has changed in profound and unpredictable ways.
'our purity is above 99%': the chinese labs churning out legal highs for the west
The reality of drugs in the digital age is that on deep web markets any illegal drug, from marijuana to methamphetamine, is a click or two away. Legal highs are chemical compounds synthesised in labs that stimulate or depress the central nervous system in a way that mimics banned substances such as cannabis or cocaine.
Chemists tinker with the structure of NPS compounds so that they fall outside international drug controls — at least when they first emerge. Scores of new substances are reported in Europe and the US each year, and drug control agencies have now categorised more than substances.
Drug policies in consumer countries such as the US and UK were conceived long before the internet and globalisation radically transformed the drugs market.
The deluge of toxic substances, hyperventilating media coverage and a recent spate of hospitalisations have shattered any illusion of government control. All this has happened in a relatively short time.
How is it used?
The mass production of legal highs began only inwhen UN drugs officials destroyed 33 tonnes of safrole oil, a precursor of MDMA, in Cambodia. For the two years before it was banned, users could not get enough of this cheap, cocaine-meets-ecstasy high. Vendors began trawling obscure scientific journals for compounds, consumers described their highs on online drug forums, and the nascent market took shape. Wholesale importers in the UK, US and Europe put in bulk orders from chemical companies to be delivered through the post or by international couriers.
Local officials, if adequately bribed, would look the other way; the Chinese government was more concerned with rising domestic consumption of banned drugs than chemicals that are legal and headed abroad. The headquarters of his company is on the 12th floor of a near-deserted office building on the edge of the city.
On arrival, I am ushered into a meeting room and given a paper cup of steaming, loose-leaf green tea.
I ask whether Charles can guarantee delivery. After a lunch of prawns with rice noodles and pumpkin — Charles chain smokes throughout — we drive across the city to an industrial park in the district of Pudong.
Rapport national sur la rétention administrative
At the door a chubby woman in her 30s with cropped hair and a white coat greets us: she is the head chemist. A large plastic bag contains some 50 samples of off-white powders and crystals — stimulants, depressants, opioids.
We sit down to talk. Second, it seems it has already [caused] dead in Russia. Do you know the news?
So why do you still want it? Does she know anything about its potency? AB-C was first mentioned on drugs forums in early As a synthetic cannabinoid it is one of the most popular types of NPS and is a derivative, or close chemical cousin, of AB-Fubinaca, China white party powder substance banned in February in the US. Cannabinoids are deed to work in the same way as tetrahydrocannabinol THCthe constituent of cannabis that acts on receptors in the brain to produce a psychoactive effect, or a high. Today they are typically dissolved in solvents and sprayed on plant material before being packaged in 1g-3g foil packets with brand names such as Spice, K2 and Herbal Haze.
Vendors do not include dosage advice to avoid condoning use and breaking the law. In order to keep ahead of legal control, the NPS market must constantly evolve: a small variation on the chemical structure of a banned drug allows the new substance to skirt most legislation — but this tiniest molecular tweak can create a drug with dramatically different psychoactive effects.
L'asile en france et en europe. etat des lieux
AB-C is active at a far lower dose than its parent compound, so mistakes are easily made. Over the next 72 hours, a further 25 patients arrived, and Dr Jones notified the state health department. Since early April, more than people from almost every county in Mississippi have sought emergency medical treatment after overdosing on spice.
The youngest patient seen at the hospital was Most arrive hallucinating, agitated and profusely sweating. Often, because they are confused, they are violent. Adverse effects from taking the drug includes coma, loss of motor control, difficulty breathing and convulsions, according to the DEA notice that temporarily banned AB-C and two other cannabinoids in December AB-C is legal to sell in the UK. The emergence of NPS has created an unprecedented challenge China white party powder drug policymakers worldwide.
The current global prohibition on drugs was established by UN treaties dating back to the s and has been incorporated into the domestic laws of countries.
Its roots are in the US prohibition of alcohola costly experiment that failed to stop people drinking and instead fuelled a black market in moonshine run by rapacious gangs. But this system proved too clunky — it could take months for the experts to conclude a drug was unsafe — so in the UK introduced new measures called Temporary Class Drug Ordersallowing the government to temporarily ban a substance while evaluating its harms.
Mike Power, author of Drugs 2. Drugs law should be progressively dismantled, he says, recommending the introduction of a controlled, regulated market of cannabis as seen in Colorado. Kushlick, too, advocates legalising the more benign substances. New psychoactive substances.
What is heroin?
Nicola Davison in Shanghai. Fri 1 May . Reuse this content.