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Produced in the 18th century, Chinese export porcelain was crafted with the same technical virtuosity as Chinese Imperial porcelain but deed to Western taste. Its continued appeal is testament to the incredible interaction of Chinese artisans and Western importers who, without common language or culture and separated by vast oceans, together promoted the spread of these wares. Bulk-ordered blue and white porcelain decorated with generic mountain landscapes comprised the overwhelming majority of China Trade cargoes.
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Blue and white "Kraak" paneled decoration on a thin porcelain body. Diameter 34 c. J E Nilsson Collection. The Dating chinese export porcelain were the first to establish regular trade with China over the sea. The first export porcelain got to be known as Kraak porcelain Dating chinese export porcelain, probably after the Portuguese Carrack's which were the ships the Portuguese used for the trade. At the end of the 16th century, a most fascinating exchange of ideas started to occur between China and the West.
A regular trade with the West had indeed been going on since the time of the Roman Empire when China was known as Seres - the land of Silk. The Portuguese had established the first "modern" trading station in Canton as early as Very soon western merchants began to order copies of pieces they brought with them or from supplied patterns. Very early commercial middlemen were the Jesuit missionaries that somehow had managed to get connections inland that could be used for trade. From the early 17th century the Dutch presence in the East India trade became more and more noticeable.
From their trade entrepot Batavia that they established in Java, they soon came to dominate the trade for the whole century. Typical export porcelain from the hundreds are the so called Kraak wares with paneled decorations, that was actually a style pioneered by the Portuguese.
Bowl with Dutch special de. Deep sides, decorated to the interior and to the outside with figure scenes with scholars, tulips and landscapes with buildings. Diameter 21 cm. In the 18th century western artists started to make up decorative items and whole interiors in a mock Chinese or Japanese style.
These Western "Chinese" des were most fashionable at the time and were called "Chinoiserie". They became an important element of the arts and styles of the mid 18th century. In fact, the rococo style was heavily influenced by western ideas about China and Chinese concepts of form and de.
Even western ideas were inspired from Chinese philosophies, something that eventually led to several revolutions, in France, in North America and in Sweden. During the 18th century Chinese export porcelain followed the general trends in western interior decoration fashion, as in table settings and silverware, in textiles, furniture and the wallpapers of the time. In the middle of the 18th century it was rococo that was the rage and famille rose with its thickly applied, opaque enamels was as I see it developed in accordance with the continental fashion at the time. Before Dating chinese export porcelain the more garish famille verte was developed from the late Ming Daoist inspired wucaito coincide with the European baroque period up until s.
Rococo and Famille Rose spans the s to s. From s and onwards the trends branches out into several styles. In general, the decorations becomes more influenced by European decorations. You will find decorations bases on Chinese and western book illustrations and prints, western so called "German flowers" inspired from Meissen and maybe other European porcelain factories occurs.
At the end of the 18th century the rococo fizzles out and a classical influence from Rome becomes noticeable with decorations in mostly monochrome enamels, such as black, sepia, blue and gold, while showing larger white areas of white porcelain surface than before. Bowl in famille noire decoration, Kangxi period. Photo: J E Nilsson, During the early and mid 18th Century Chinese polychrome porcelain decorations developed into groups we now describe as "families" such as Famille Verte Dating chinese export porcelain, Famille NoireFamille Jaune and Famille Rose.
Today when items of this kind have become rare, I feel we are left sorting up the crumbs where he and his likes were still handling the loafs however, to some extent his families are still a workable tool, however blunt. A large of other styles and patterns were also recognized by name by collectors and scholars trying to bring order to this field.
In reality all these different groups were never perfectly separated and most incorporated elements from others, creating endless opportunities then as well as today, for heated discussions among collectors about what is what.
Marks on later chinese porcelain
Help would come from an unexpected direction since by the early to mid 19th century Chinese porcelain had by and large fallen out of fashion, and the ly so important "families" was replaced with a more limited of polychrome and blue and white standard patterns, recognized as MandarinRose MedallionNanking and Cantonstill however never clearly defined. During the Kangxi period in the early part of the 18th Century, the late Ming wucai or "five color" decoration developed into a new "family" called Famille Verte, or the "green family. Pieces from this period Dating chinese export porcelain with the decoration executed in Famille Verte enamels sometimes occur with the decoration set against a black or yellow background These are known as Famille Noire and Famille Jaune, respectively.
Rare as they are, genuine examples are even more rare. A really neat fake I recently studied had got its entire underglaze blue decoration with glaze and all ground away and replaced with a Famille Verte decoration against a yellow ground. Probably around the turn of the Dating chinese export porcelain when the prices for these rare and impressive pieces was incredibly high. Since the porcelain body and mark was genuine Kangxi, this old fraud was very hard to detect.
Simultaneously with the replacement in Europe of the Baroque style by the Rococo, the Famille Rose appeared in the Chinese export porcelain.
ificant for this style is a new emphasis on flowers, influenced by the by now established Qing dynasty, a different color scheme based on enamels mixed with white to give a softer impression, and the presence of a new rose enamel based on gold. In reality the different "families" were not that perfectly separated. Mixtures of styles occur.
The plate and charger to the left are good example of early "Famille Rose", as its best and most typical look. They have both iron red flowers under the rim, typical for the first decades of the 18th century.
Two branches in red or underglaze blue under the rim indicates a date from Dating chinese export porcelain early decades of the 18th century and occurs up until the s. During the remaining 18th century the flowers develops towards a more western look and becomes smaller. Tea caddy and a punch bowl. Chinese Imariin iron red and underglaze blue decoration, early to mid 18th century. The tea caddy a few decades earlier than the bowl, copying a metal shape. During the first half of the 18th century a recognizable group of decorations that got to be called 'Chinese Imari ', after the Japanese Arita district porcelain export harbor - Imari.
During the turmoil of the "transitional" period by the end Dating chinese export porcelain the Ming dynasty to the beginning of the Qing, the Chinese had lost most of the porcelain trade to the Japanese, who had developed a simplified wucai Chinese five-color decoration - to this day called Japanese Imari. When the political conditions got stabilized in China the Chinese hurriedly copied this Japanese style - hence the name Chinese Imari.
From the excavation of the Dutch East Indiaman "Geldermalsen" we know that identical des executed in underglaze blue and white, Famille Rose and Imari occurred at the same time. No doubt every western country could be said to have contributed to the development of the Chinese Export Porcelain, so also the US which contribution came late, though, and which most important part must be said to have been the providing of a ready market for the late 18th century standard patterns.
Sepia decorated porcelain was something of a favourite among special orders, often based on western book illustrations or engravings, printed in black and white. A special family of porcelain is pieces decorated in "black and white".
They appeared by the s as "Jesuit china" and seems to have stayed in vogue until the s. This group is also called encre de chine or en grisaille. The sources for the decorations were during it early part black and white engravings or book illustrations with romantic, mythological or religious themes.
Pieces with this kind of decoration are rare and most decorations are known under the names of their decoration. This plate illustrated here is known under its name of "The Adoration of the Shepherds". The original in this specific case is an engraving by the Amsterdam artist Jan Luyken which were used in several Dutch Bible editions.
This decoration can have been taken from a Bible illustration, brought by some of the Jesuit missionaries visiting China or having been ordered by some Dutch merchants working from Batavia present day's Jakarta. The carefully deed border appears to rely on a European de print of the s, possibly by Francois Boucher Armorial porcelain and special des, s Porcelain with special des and special coat of arms actually started to occur already during the late Ming period, ordered already by the Portuguese. During the Qing dynasty, Kangxi period more services are known, however it was not until the British entered the trade in all sincerity, that the commissioning of armorial porcelain with family coat of arms became substantial with something like 3, known armorial services as compare to the more modest around known Swedish armorial services.
During the 18th century an important de Dating chinese export porcelain to the Chinese were the special des made for wealthy western families. It is more often the rule, rather than the exception that the border des from the special des porcelain simultaneously appears on the bulk wares made for the trade.
But, thanks to this general practice most Chinese Export porcelain of the 18th century could be dated with a high degree of accuracy within a few years of it date of production by comparison with the border des of dated armorial porcelain. Over the century the decorations develops from a very cluttered bombastic, covering it all decoration filling up the central panel, to much more sophisticated decoration where the coat of arms eventually shrinks and moves up onto the rim.
By the end of the 18th century and into the 19th century, it became the common practice to only used small sophisticated initials, or to have the family coat-of-arms integrated into a standard pattern instead. The first standard pattern that was developed onto Chinese export porcelain by its popularity and success is a nowadays loosely held together group called the Willow Pattern.
It seems likely that the patterns as such were deed in England based on earlier Chinese prints or paintings of river scenes. The two main variations of this pattern differs mainly is their borders and are called Spode and Mosquito pattern respectively. The illustration to the left is of the actual printed English Spode pattern. The Spode factory in England was established in Its Dating chinese export porcelain border is built up by irregular Dating chinese export porcelain des clearly distinguishing it from the "mosquito" border, also called the "brocade" border, the latter having more rounded shapes, being as I see it more artistic and containing more of recognizable Chinese symbols.