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This study investigated psychosocial risk factors in adolescents and assessed gender differences in the frequency of their occurrence. A specially deed questionnaire, which included validated scales for the evaluation of depression Zung Self-rating Depression Scale and self-esteem Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scalewas administered to a representative sample of Slovenian adolescents.

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The cemeteries of Colonia Iulia Emonalike those of numerous other Roman-period towns, were largely excavated before scientific analyses became standard practice. This article looks into how various aspects of identity can be reconstructed from such an incomplete data set. Existing data is evaluated to establish gender and age, while the perception of aging in the Roman world and the presence of underrepresented groups, such as children and the elderly, are also discussed. Furthermore, I will look at objects that are not typically associated with any specific category, such as drinking and dining equipment and, to a lesser extent, objects related to occupations. Roman archaeology, mortuary archaeology, identity, gender, life course studies. Stemberger K.

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Mark Risjord, in Philosophy of Medicine Florence Nightingale is a central figure in the history of nursing. By creating a secular, professional role for nurses, she set the framework for modern nursing practice. She also was the first to conceptualize nursing's intellectual domain. Specifically, she oriented nurses toward the environment of the patients, everything from the condition of their bandages to the layout of their sickrooms.

Viewed from the perspective of modern scientific disciplines, many of Nightingale's specific concerns look like hygiene and public health issues. It must be remembered, however, that Nightingale was working near the dawn of the germ theory of disease. While her preferred theory was ultimately unsuccessful, the practical interventions she recommended were effective.

The success of her ideas helped establish nursing's intellectual legitimacy. As a result of her work, nursing had a range of concerns that fell outside of the physician's domain. Moreover, nursing addressed aspects of health that fell squarely within a women's expertise. While Nightingale is rightly regarded as an important figure in the emancipation of womenher formulation of the role of Girl on girl sex in Plesnica drew heavily on nineteenth century conceptions of gender.

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She responded that. The theoretical part of medicine, including, diagnosis, prescription and surgical interventions, was left to men. The practical issues of patient care were within the traditional female sphere. Nightingale's contribution was to portray this sphere as a legitimate domain of knowledge and to argue that educating a professional class who ministered in this domain was conducive to better health care.

During the next hundred years, the profession of nursing was nurtured in military and civilian hospitals, clinics, public health institutions, and private homes. Nurses proved themselves valuable for both Girl on girl sex in Plesnica care and for the administration of many hospital functions. While nursing required specialized knowledge and nurse education came to be increasingly important, there was little or no research within the profession during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

During this period, scientific essays in nursing journals were often written by non-nurses typically doctors with the intention of explaining some useful fact or theory. There was little or no research that focused on or arose from nursing itself. Nursing research arose in the nineteen fifties, and it developed in response to several pressures. Most important, perhaps, was the movement of nurse training from hospital-based apprenticeships to diploma-granting institutions of higher education. Training within institutions of higher education required nursing faculty and a curriculum for them to teach.

Interest and funding by the U. During World War II, American government agencies gathered data on the availability and need for nurses.

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Inthe U. This began a project of research on the education of nurses, on their job satisfaction and turn over, and on nursing functions and activities [ Gortner,p. Beginning with small grants from the Division of Nursing Resources, which eventually developed into the National Institute for Nursing Research, funds gradually became available for nursing research.

Inthe journal Nursing Research was established, marking the beginning of a self-conscious research enterprise in the nursing profession. The social position of women began to be discussed with the onset of modernization attempts in the nineteenth century. As modernization seemed to imply Westernization, the ultimate question that reformists needed to answer was whether Islam was compatible with Western civilization and more particularly with women's rights and freedom.

Different answers to that question — ranging from national modernists and Islamist reformists to religious conservatives — continue to put their stamp on the intellectual and political history of the Middle East. Analysis of these historical debates Girl on girl sex in Plesnica the point of view of women's questions has shown discursive parallels in countries such as Egypt, Turkey, and Iran Ahmed, ; Badran, ; Gole, ; Najmabadi in Kandiyoti, Islamist reformists asserted that Islam was not a barrier to progress and that it was possible in Islam to embrace modern ideals, such as gender equality and human rights.

But for conservatives, any change in the direction of Western modernity, especially pertaining to women's position in society, would have meant a loss in cultural identity and consequently, to preserve moral integrity and social cohesion, gender relationships were to be framed according to the Islamic religious law Shari'a as they understood it.

As markers of cultural identity, women, therefore, set the agenda for different and competing social projects. Furthermore, the most disputed issues throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, namely polygamy, veiling, gender segregation, women's education, employment, and participation in public life, remained on the public agenda of Middle Eastern countries in the s and s.

The Middle Eastern model of early modernization, namely the era of colonial, postcolonial, and nationalist state building, can best be summarized by a formula that equates women's emancipation and national progress. With striking similarities between Turkey, Iran, and Egypt, and also with the North African countries, women's public visibility and gender equality are considered to be the yardsticks of progress and civility.

Turkish Kemalist nationalism articulated and implemented gender equality as an intrinsic part of its modern identity and societal reforms. Women gained full political rights inand the removal of family law from the jurisdiction of religion with the enactment in of a secular Civil Code adapted from Swiss law in Turkey can be considered as the most radical example of engagement in secular feminism.

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In Iran, too, women's rights, free education, and compulsory unveiling in were implemented by the secular nationalist politics of Reza Shah. In Egypt, alongside nationalism, the Islamic reformist movement especially in the works of Muhammed Abduh and Qasim Amin paved the way for women to gain access to public life, to claim a public voice, and to demand educational, work, and political rights.

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Veiling was criticized as a of women's confinement and as an obstacle to women's participation in Girl on girl sex in Plesnica life. Thus, the removal of the veil and the head covering of women in public became a symbol of women's emancipation as well as national progress.

A well-known Egyptian feminist, Huda Sharawi, announced the start of the feminist movement when, returning from an international feminist meeting in Rome inshe disembarked from her train in Cairo and unveiled her face in public. Therefore, public visibility of women was put forward by the first wave of feminist activism and writing in the Middle East.

A pre-Islamic past, whether Anatolian, Zoroastrian, Pharaonic, or Berber, was idealized as egalitarian in gender relations and celebrated in the construction of a new nationalist idiom. The limits of women's participation in public life and social agency were framed within the terms set by the nationalist movements whether backed up by secular or religious reformist discourse. Feminist scholarship in the Middle East revealed these issues pertaining to gender and nationalism and developed in distancing itself from and in criticism of nationalist idiom Kandiyoti, ; Moghadam, The latter perspective reflected the tension between the official policy of women's emancipation and gender equality, and de facto sexism and inequality in everyday life Lapidus The post-Soviet period has, by most s, seen further deterioration of this situation, as measured by discrepancies in male and female employment, sexual Girl on girl sex in Plesnica in the workplace, and sexism in the media.

Though some have argued that these phenomena are products of the rapid restructuring of society, most scholars of gender in Russia see connections between the formal promotion of women rights under socialism and the current regression.

Many have argued that the Soviet constitutional definition of women as workers and mothers is partly responsible for discrimination directed against women in practice. As the post-Soviet state fell into crisis, it has been unable to defend the full range of formal rights for women. One of the consequences, Mary Buckley notes, is that women have been increasingly driven away from participation in the public sphere. Sexuality, as distinct from gender, was rarely examined in Soviet studies. Because studies of sexuality are methodologically demanding and complicated, they were severely restrained by Soviet censorship and rigid cultural norms.

Peter Stanford's book, Sexual Behavior in the Communist Worldpresented an interesting but fragmented view of sexual practices under socialism. Most work on sexuality in Western Soviet studies was based on the analysis of available legal or literary texts and other cultural artifacts DunhamLevitt and Toporkov Only in the s has more theoretical, fieldwork-based research developed—partly in response to the dramatic reorganization of sexual norms in Russia. Laurie Essig's research on homosexuality in Russia is exemplary in this regard, offering not only rich empirical material but a critical comparative analysis of the distinctive formation of sexual subjectivity in Russia Essig This is not a specific instruction to Jews, but to humanity as a whole, and reflects the essential nature of human life.

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Sexuality is based on the natural order that originates with God, and society should follow natural needs instead of seeking to oppose them. The family is the appropriate context for sexuality, and incestuous, homosexual, and nonhuman sexual relationships are thus inappropriate. Homosexuality is taken to be wrong because it involves the participants taking on female and male roles that are out of line with their natural sexual constitutions.

Formalizing homosexual relationships as legitimate is then to be opposed, since it in a deformed version of heterosexual family life.

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Although men rather than women seem to be the initiators of marriage, the development of Jewish matrimonial law represents the gradual emancipation of women from relationships that resemble slavery. For example, there was a gradual historic move away from polygamy and concubinage to monogamy, something on which Maimonides took a leading position.

Only in monogamy can there be true mutuality in sexual and personal relationships, and women can be seen as more than a mere sexual object.

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Since women have to consent to marriage, it has to be a mutual arrangement in order to be valid. Marriage cannot only be a civil contract, but is a covenant based on the covenant between God and Israel. The idea of marriage as a holy covenant is rooted in the idea of the human being as the image of God. Although sexual love does involve pleasure, it involves more than this.

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These halakhic requirements are probably little practiced among the modern Jewish community, which is just as liable to be involved in premarital sex or homosexuality as any other group in society. The idea that the only acceptable expression of sexuality is within the traditional heterosexual family sanctified through religious marriage is very alien to the experience of most Jews in modern society. This has led some to argue that since family structures are changing, the traditional criteria of valid Jewish relationships are no longer appropriate. A truly egalitarian approach to the family will give women Girl on girl sex in Plesnica more power than under halakhic Judaism, and will respect the whole gamut of family structures that different people have created.

Many may find satisfying personal relationships out of marriage — in heterosexual relationships without marriage, in gay and lesbian relationships, in collectives, or even in isolation. The argument would go that this is not contrary to the values of the traditional family, but an extension of those values to include a far wider social constituency.