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In their quest for survival, plants have evolved to produce an amazing variety of chemical compounds known as secondary metabolites. These chemicals often serve to deter herbivores, protect against pathogens and neighbors, or mitigate the effects of radiation, among numerous other uses.
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Hallucinogens are compounds that cause distinct changes in perception, emotional state List of hallucinogenic herbs mind, and awareness of space and time, medically defined as sensory delusions. Psychoactive plants with compounds in this group include the peyote cactus, Datura species, Salvia divinorum, and various morning-glory species such as Turbina corymbosa. Psychoactive fungi with potent hallucinogenic compounds include the famous red and white-capped mushroom, Amanita muscaria, and the cereal grain fungus ergot Claviceps spp. The ritual use of peyote in Mexico and North America goes deep into the past. Numerous peyote-decorated figurines and artifacts dating back to pre-Columbian times have been found in Mesoamerican tombs and archeological sites.
Psilocybin or psilocin are hallucinogenic substances found in more than species of mushrooms.
They are mainly used for spiritual or recreational purposes and cause similar but distinct hallucinogenic experiences compared with LSD. It is dangerous to pick and eat wild mushrooms because it is difficult to distinguish edible mushrooms from their poisonous lookalikes. Poisonous mushrooms can cause stomach pains, vomiting and diarrhoea, while some can cause permanent liver damage, respiratory failure, unconsciousness and even death.
Symptoms can take up to 40 hours to develop. DMT is a powerful hallucinogen found in the seeds, bark, leaves or stem of various plants around the world, including some acacia species native to Australia. It is consumed by many individuals as ayahuasca which is mainly used for spiritual purposes. Alternatively, it can be synthesised into a crystalline form which is typically vaporised or smoked.
Salvia divinorum is a species in the mint family which can be chewed, drunk or smoked in order to produce hallucinogenic experiences. Given that salvia is not controlled under the UN conventions, it is classified as a new psychoactive substance.
Mescaline is most commonly known as the active ingredient of the peyote cactus and is used both spiritually and recreationally. Naturally occurring hallucinogens are used in a variety of ways, depending on their form.
List of psychoactive plants
They are often smoked with the exception of mushrooms and can be boiled into tea preparations. The short and long-term effects vary greatly depending on the hallucinogen used. Additionally, the effects of each drug can differ substantially from person to person. The effects produced by these substances, and the user's reaction to these effects, vary greatly between individuals.
Other rarer effects include flashbacks brief but intrusive hallucinogen-like experiences that occur after the effects of the hallucinogen have worn offhallucinogen persisting perception disorder HPPDimpaired memory, prolonged depression and anxiety. It is extremely dangerous, as well as illegal, to drive with the distorted sense perceptions, poor coordination and lack of judgement caused by taking hallucinogens.
Most of the research looking at hallucinogens and pregnancy have focused on LSD and have provided some evidence that LSD use during pregnancy le to an increased risk of miscarriage and birth complications. It is very likely that other naturally List of hallucinogenic herbs compounds may have the same effect.
If a mother uses hallucinogens when breastfeeding, it is possible that the drug will be present in her milk and have adverse effects on the baby. Cross-tolerance can occur between psychedelics. This means that users with a tolerance to, for example, LSD, may have a tolerance to drugs with similar effects such as mescaline.
Naturally occurring hallucinogens are not thought to cause physical dependence. Regular users may develop psychological dependence, although this is not common. Given that there is little risk of physical dependence, there are minimal physical effects when use ceases.
Users may experience residual List of hallucinogenic herbs effects such as low feelings of anxiety. Naturally occurring hallucinogens are not particularly toxic drugs; deaths that have been linked to hallucinogens are usually unintended consequences of perceptual distortion, such as falls. Despite this, taking a larger than intended dose can result in extremely distorted perception, unstable mood, intense fear and an extremely depressed mood and can also prolong the experience for much longer than expected.
One of the dangers of using magic mushrooms is that of accidentally ingesting a highly toxic non-hallucinogenic variety. Some other naturally occurring hallucinogens, such as datura, may cause poisoning in high doses.
People who use natural hallucinogens do not generally seek treatment for their drug use and there are few treatment options that can be recommended, apart from those found to be generally effective for drug dependence. Download and print the chapter on Natural hallucinogens from A quick guide to drugs and alcohol3rd edition.
9 mind-altering plants
Hallucinogens are a group of drugs that work on the brain to affect the senses and cause hallucinations — seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting or touching things that do not exist. An easy-to-read booklet with information on a range of drugs and their effects including: mixing drugs, pregnancy, the law, reducing the harm of drugs and where to go for help. Google Tag Manager. Hide message.
The top 10 naturally occurring psychedelics
The Library is closed onsite, open online. See updates here. Natural hallucinogens and the law It is illegal to use, possess, supply or manufacture hallucinogens in New South Wales.
How natural hallucinogens are used Naturally occurring hallucinogens are used in a variety of ways, depending on their form. Mushrooms can be dried or boiled, then added to other foods. Short term effects The short and long-term effects vary greatly depending on the hallucinogen used. Hallucinogens and driving It is extremely dangerous, as well as illegal, to drive with the distorted sense perceptions, poor coordination and lack List of hallucinogenic herbs judgement caused by taking hallucinogens.
Hallucinogens and pregnancy Most of the research looking at hallucinogens and pregnancy have focused on LSD and have provided some evidence that LSD use during pregnancy le to an increased risk of miscarriage and birth complications.
List of psychoactive plants, fungi, and animals
Interaction with other drugs Cross-tolerance can occur between psychedelics. Dependence Naturally occurring hallucinogens are not thought to cause physical dependence. Withdrawal Given that there is little risk of physical dependence, there are minimal physical effects when use ceases. Overdose Naturally occurring hallucinogens are not particularly toxic drugs; deaths that have been linked to hallucinogens are usually unintended consequences of perceptual distortion, such as falls.
Treatment People who use natural hallucinogens do not generally seek treatment for their drug use and there are few treatment options that can be recommended, apart from those found to be generally effective for drug dependence.