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A medicine is defined in section 3 of the Medicines Act and are regulated under that Act. A list of ingredients scheduled as medicines can be found in Schedule 1 of the Medicines Regulations Controlled drugs and precursor substances are listed in schedules 1 to 4 of the Misuse of Drugs Act and are regulated under that Act.

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The rapid emergence of a large of NPS on the global drug market poses a ificant risk to public health and a challenge to drug policy. Often, little is known about the adverse health effects and social harms of NPS, which pose a considerable challenge for prevention and treatment. The analysis and identification of a large of chemically diverse substances present in drug markets at the same time is demanding.

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Manufacturers of these drugs develop new chemicals to replace those that are banned, which means that the chemical structures of the drugs are constantly changing to try to stay ahead of the law.

Are they safer than established illicit drugs?

Synthetic drugs, legal highs, herbal highs, party pills, synthetic cocaine, synthetic cannabis, herbal ecstasy, Psychoactive substances definition, bath salts, plant fertiliser, herbal incense, room deodorisers, aphrodisiac tea, social tonics, new and emerging drugs NEDsdrug analogues and research chemicals. This is one of the biggest misconceptions about NPS. Given how rapidly new drugs are emerging, it is difficult to know the common effects of these drugs and what dose causes what effects.

NPS do not come with a recommended dosage printed on the label. They are unregulated and untested.

NPS are relatively new, so there is limited information available about their short and long-term effects. However, synthetic cannabis has been reported to have more serious side-effects than cannabis. Synthetic cannabinoids were originally deed to produce similar effects to cannabis and have been sold online since Some of the newer substances Psychoactive substances definition to be synthetic cannabis do not actually mimic the effects of THC delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient in cannabis.

Reports suggest it also produces additional negative effects. These powdered chemicals are mixed with solvents and added to herbs and sold in colourful, branded Psychoactive substances definition. The chemicals usually vary from batch to batch, so different packets can produce different effects even if the name and branding on the package looks the same. Phenethylamines are a group of psychoactive drugs with stimulant effects and include amphetamine and MDMA.

Synthetic cathinones is the name of a category of drugs related to the naturally occurring khat plant.

They are stimulants, meaning that they speed up the messages between the brain and the body and have similar effects to amphetamines. Most tryptamines are psychedelic drugs found in plants, fungi and animals e. Due to their stimulant properties piperazines are often sold as MDMA. They are commonly available as pills, capsules or powder and usually swallowed.

Initially Psychoactive substances definition as a potential antidepressant drug but also having properties similar to amphetamines meant there was a risk for the non-prescribed use of piperazines. When these two drugs are mixed they have similar effects to MDMA.

In recent years, several new psychoactive substances NPS belonging to the benzodiazepine class have also emerged. Some of the initial drugs from this class include:. There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. If your use of NPS is affecting your health, family, relationships, work, school, financial or other life situations, you can seek help:.

In other states and territories in Australia specific NPS substances are banned and new ones Psychoactive substances definition regularly added to the list. This means that a drug that was legal to sell or possess today, may be illegal tomorrow.

NEDsaphrodisiac teabath saltsemerging drugsherbal ecstasyherbal highsherbal incenselegal highsnew drugsparty pillsresearch chemicalsroom deodouriserssocial tonicssynthetic cannabissynthetic cocainesynthetic drugs. Drug List Drug Wheel.

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New psychoactive substances. Last published: July 16, Print. What are new psychoactive substances?

Are they safer than established illicit drugs? Phenethylamines Phenethylamines are a group of psychoactive drugs with Psychoactive substances definition effects and include amphetamine and MDMA. Some of the initial drugs from this class include: diclazepam flubromazepam pyrazolam 9 There is limited information on the short and long-term health effects of novel benzodiazepines.

Health and safety There is no safe level of drug use. Triple Psychoactive substances definition should be called immediately if someone is experiencing negative effects and looks like they are in trouble. There have been a of deaths caused by NPS. Negative side-effects and overdose are more likely when NPS are taken in combination with alcohol or other drugs.

Taking a low dose first could help determine the effects and the strength of the drug. Activities like driving, swimming and operating machinery while under the influence should therefore be avoided. This can make it easy to overdose. Many NPS contain a range of fillers and cutting agents that could lead to health problems, particularly if injected. Given caffeine is contained in many products, sometimes in high quantities, additional caffeine consumption i. People with mental health conditions may be at higher risk of harm from these drugs, as most of the deaths associated with them such as suicides have involved people with mental health conditions.

They can therefore cause health problems particularly amongst older people and people with pre-existing Psychoactive substances definition conditions. It can be difficult for medical practitioners to know how to treat someone who has overdosed on or has health problems caused by NPS, given the large of these drugs on the market and the lack of research on their effects.

Treatment could be quicker and more effective if the person has used the drug with somebody who can advise exactly what has been taken and the dosage, or it has been written down — supplying the packet might be helpful.

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Getting help If your use of NPS is affecting your health, family, relationships, work, school, financial or other life situations, you can seek help:. Search support services. New Psychoactive Substances Fact sheet See also, drugs and the law. Bright S. Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia.

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New Psychoactive Substances - Evidence Review. Scotish Government; State Library NSW. New and emerging psychoactive substances Sydney NSW. Cooper Z. Current Psychiatry Reports. Drug Policy Alliance. Synthetic cathinones. United Nations Office of Drug Control.

Non-medical use of benzodiazepines: a growing threat to public health? Last updated: 16 Jul