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On generalization uniaxial stress-strain relation. Different forms of constitutive relations have been advanced for elastic, plastic and elastic-plastic behaviour of materials. It is shown that the various forms of the stress-strain relationship are specialized forms of generalization of a single stress-strain relation. For example, it is shown how the laws of elastic deformation, and the incremental and total deformation relationship for plastic behaviour are derivable from the Ramberg-Osgood relation.

Limitations of Hollomon and Ludwigson stress-strain relations in assessing the strain hardening parameters. It is shown that the deviation from the ideal Hollomon relation in describing the stress-strain behaviour is characteristic of all materials at low strains.

The Ludwigson relation describing the deviation from the Hollomon relation at low strains is critically analysed and it is shown that the deviation at low strains is a consequence of some unknown 'plastic strain equivalent' present in the material.

Stress strain curves obeying an ideal Hollomon relation as well as that of a structurally modified prior cold worked material were simulated and compared. The show that the yield strength and the flow strength of a material at constant strain rate and temperature are dictated by the magnitude of the 'plastic strain equivalent' term. It is shown that this component need not necessarily mean a prior plastic strain present in the material due to prior cold work alone and that prior cold work strain will add to this. If this component is identified, the stress-strain behaviour can be adequately described by the Swift relation.

It is shown that in both formalisms, the strain hardening index is a function of the yield strength of the material. In situ subsoil stress-strain behaviour in relation to soil precompression stress. The data Soil compaction negatively influences many important soil functions, including crop growth. Compaction occurs when the applied stress[sigma], overcomes the soil strength. Soil strength in relation to compaction is typically expressed by the soil precompression stress[sigma]pc. Contradicting the concept of precompression stresswe observed residual strain[Latin Small Letter Open E]res, at [sigma.

Relating high-temperature flow stress of AISI stainless steel to strain and strain rate. The authors have performed Sex enschede Ringus casual sex Rock Hill South Carolina experimental determination of tensile stress-strain curves for different strain rates 4. The show that the materials tested are clearly affected by strain rate only at the highest temperature investigated K and that the plastic strain is the more ificant variable.

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Of the constitutive equations considered, Voce's relation gives the best fit for the true stress-time-strain curves. However, the Ludwik and Ludwigson equations also provide a description of the experimental data, whereas Hollomon's equation does not suitably characterize AISI H stainless steel and can be applied with some accuracy only at K.

Numerical analysis oriented biaxial stress-strain relation and failure criterion of plain concrete. A biaxial stress-strain relation and failure criterion is proposed, which is applicable to structural analysis methods. The formulation of material behavior of plain concrete in biaxial stress -state was developed.

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A failure criterion was defined by approximating the test of the biaxial ultimate concrete strength with a 7th degree polynomial, which is also valid in the whole biaxial stress domain. The definition of the state of failure is given as a function of stresses as well as strains. Initial parameters of the formulation of the biaxial material behavior are the uniaxial cylindrical strength of concrete and the initial values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. A simple expansion of this formulation makes it applicable not only to normal but also to light-weight concrete. Comparison of numerically calculated stress-strain curves up to the ultimate biaxial stresses which indicate the failure criteria with those obtained from tests show a very good agreement.

Numerical examples of analysis of concrete slabs show the importance of incorporation of a realistic material behavior for better safety estimations. Stress markers in relation to job strain in human service organizations.

Workers in human service organizations are often confronted with conflicting demands in providing care or education. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to relate levels of endocrine stress markers to perceived job strain in two human service organizations. The perceived job strain was assessed with a standardized questionnaire containing questions of the demand-control model.

Questions specially deed to measure emotional demands were also included.

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The stress markers cortisol, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone and IgA and IgG were analysed in blood samples. The main finding was an association between high emotional strain and increased levels of prolactin.

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The levels of cortisol, but none of the other four stress markers, increased slightly with emotional strain. Emotional strain experienced in human service work may cause psychological stress. The increase in prolactin was modest but consistent with findings in other published studies on stress-related endocrine alterations.

Copyright S. Karger AG, Basel. On the derivative of the stress-strain relation in a no-tension material. Effect on stress-strain relations brought by surface carburization of stainless steel. The effect of sodium. Recent developments tending toward stricter control of the oxygen content permitted to be present in the circulating sodium have come to allay the apprehensions formerly held on the possibility of general corrosion affecting the mechanical properties of structural materials expected to be used In LMFBR plants.

Grain boundary corrosion and depletion of elements from the structure surface also have come to be considered to provide little cause of fear in this regard, though some uncertainty is still left concerning the influence that these phenomena might exert toward the end of plant life.

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What still remains essentially to be clarified relates to carbon mass transfer. Recent reports on loop experiments point toward the possibility of carboneous matter leaching into flowing sodium and into the cover gas to produce ificant carburization phenomena.

Carburization, in particular, can bring about loss of ductility and deterioration of fatigue properties, and hence serious consideration of this aspect is called for in the de of components incorporating thin stainless steel plates. To represent the stress-strain behavior at deg. C of stainless steel affected by surface carburization, an empirical formula was adopted. Simulation of cyclic stress-strain relation under non proportional loading. A series of cyclic constitutive experiments have been conducted on 42 Cr Mo steel on MTS machine under tension-torsional loading.

Thin-walled tube specimen were used.

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Two kinds of cruciform strain path have been investigated. The paper suggests a simple method for the calculation of stable cyclic stress and strain values based on a modified endochronic constitutive theory by redefined intrinsic time scale. Effects of mean strain on the random cyclic stress-strain relations of 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel. Experimental study is performed for the effects of the mean strain on the random cyclic stress-strain relations of the new nuclear material, 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel.

From saving the size of specimens, an improved maximum likelihood fatigue test method is proposed to operate the present strain -controlled fatigue tests. Six straining ratios, -1, Fatigue test has been carried out on totally specimens. The test reveal that the material exhibits a Masing behaviour and the saturation hysteresis loops under the six ratios hold an entirely relaxation effect of mean stress. There is no effectively method for the description of the mean straining effects under this case.

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Zhao's random stress-strain relations are therefore applied to characterizing effectively the scattering test data under the six ratios on a basis of Ramberg-Osgood equation. Then the effects of the ratios are analyzed respectively on the average stress amplitudes, the standard deviations of the stress amplitudes, and the stress amplitudes under different survival probabilities and confidences.

The reveal that the ratios act a relatively decreasing effect to the stress amplitudes under higher survival probabilities and confidences. The strongest effect appears at the ratio of 0. In addition, it is indicated that the effects from the sense of average fatigue lives might result in a wrong conclusion. The effects can be appropriately assessed from a probabilistic sense to take into the scattering regularity of test data and the size of sampling.

Resiliency to social defeat stress relates to the inter- strain social interaction and is influenced by season variation. Exposure to social defeat SD stress exerts social avoidance and depressive disorders. Little is known about the relationship between resiliency to stressors and the inter- strain social interaction SI level. We hypothesized that SD resiliency is correlated with a high SI between the same strain. The susceptible mice exhibited ificant social-avoidance behaviors with less time in interaction-zone IZ and lower social interaction ratio SIR toward the Target CD-1 micewhile resilient ones exhibited similar social interaction to control mice.

Correlation analysis revealed a ificantly non-zero slope of the linear relationship between SIRs toward two strains. But different groups had a similar baseline Sex enschede Ringus casual sex Rock Hill South Carolina the inter- strain SI before stressindicating a SD-induced defect in both types of SI. In addition, in four different seasons, animals exhibited a ificant resiliency to the stress in summer. These data suggest that SD resiliency is related to a higher SI toward the same- strainand may be regulated by seasonal variations. All rights reserved. The financial impact and consequences of cancer on the lives of survivors remain poorly understood.

This is especially true for colorectal cancer. We investigated objective cancer- related financial stresssubjective cancer- related financial strainand their association with health- related quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors.